# Backgammon glossary

back game
A type of game played when one finds himself so far behind that he must concentrate on getting more men back (usually four or five) and must forget his running game. Read more about the back game.
backgammon
When a player has borne off all of his men and the Opponent still has at least one or more men stranded in the winner's home board or on the rail, the victor scores three times the value of the game, or a backgammon.
bar
The space which separates the home board and the outer board, running from one player's side to the other's. Sometimes this is a raised partition.
bar point
The first point in the player's outer board, next to the bar, labeled the seven-point in the diagrams.
bearing off
The final stage of the game, when a player has moved all his men to his home board and begins to remove them according to the rolls of the dice. Read more about bearing off.
block
Any point on the board where two or more men rest. An Opponent may not land on such a point.
blocking game
A defensive game, played when your opponent's dice have been better than yours, and when he is playing a running game. Read more about the blocking game.
blot
A space with only one man on it. A vulnerable Situation, for if the Opponent makes a throw that lands one or more of his men on the space, the man is sent off the board. The man must then re-enter and begin again.
board
The term is used in two ways. First, the entire backgammon table is called the board. Secondly, the four divisions within the tables are called outer boards and home boards.
box
A term used in chouette. The man who has rolled the highest number is said to sit "in the box." The other players play against him.
breaking a prime
The process of removing a man or men from a point in a side prime or prime.
builder
A man brought down close to your home board äs an extra man.With him, you may hope to make an additional point in your home board or just outside your home board.
captain
A term used in chouette. The player rolling the second highest number and the man who plays the man in the box.
checkers
One word used for the discs moved on the board. Not preferred.
chouette
A type of backgammon in which more than two people play. One man competes against the others, who constitute a team. One member of the team, representing the others and calling on them for advice, plays against the single man. Read more about chouette.
closed board
A player's home board having all six points made, so that an opponent's man on the bar cannot enter.
come in
Bringing a man back into play, after having been hit, or knocked off.
come on
A term used synonymously with "come in".
counters
The discs used to play the game. This is the preferred term.
Crawford rule
A rule invented by the late John Crawford, used in tournaments, under which a player is prevented from offering a double in the first game after his opponent reaches a score one short of the number of points up to which the match is being played. Read more about the crawford rule.
cube
The cube marked with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 used to double the stakes. Read more about the doubling cube.
cup
The cup used to throw the dice. It should have a small lip on the inside to prevent fixing the dice.
double
Increasing the stakes of the game to twice their immediately previous size. Read more about double.
doubles
A roll of the dice in which both dice show the same number. A player plays each die twice.
doubling block
The block used to signify the double.
doubling cube
A word used synonymously with doubling block. Read more about the doubling cube.
exposed man
A man who sits alone on a point. He is vulnerable to being hit if the Opponent lands on the same point.
gammon
When a player has borne off all his men and the opponent still has not borne off any, the victor scores twice the value of the game, or a gammon.
half a roll
The measure of the distance one man is ahead of another. Thus, if you have no men borne off and your opponent has three off, if it is your shake, your Opponent is a roll and a half ahead of you. If it is his shake, he is two and a half rolls ahead of you.
hit
Landing on a blot, and subsequently sending the man off the board.
home board
A player's own one-through six-points.
home table
The same as above; however, not the preferred term today.
inner board
The same; however, not the preferred term today.
inner table
The same; however, not the preferred term today.
Jacoby
An optional rule, invented by Oswald Jacoby, under which a gammon cannot be won unless at least one double (not an automatic) has been accepted.
knock off
The same as hit.
lover's leap
The opening 6/5 move in which a player moves one man eleven points.
make a point
Moving two men on to a vacant point, or one man on to the player's own blot; the opponent cannot then land on that point.
men
Used synonymously with counters.
no-brainer
A game which has turned into a pure running game with no (or little) element of skill.
off the board
Where a man is sent when he is hit, or knocked off.
outer board
A player's bar through twelve-points.
outer table
The same as above; however, not the preferred term today.
pip
A term used in place of 'points' when discussing how far one man is from another, or how far one player is ahead of another, etc.
points
A term used in two ways. First, each of the long, triangular shapes on the board are called points. There are twelve of these on each side of the board. Second, any of the above-defined points on which two or more men of one color rest. If two or more men are on one point, a player may move more of his own men to that point. However, the opponent may not move onto any point so occupied.
prime
Six successive or adjacent points anywhere on the board, occupied by points of one player.
rail
A word used synonymously with "off the board".
running game
The offensive backgammon game, a tactic utilized by the man who has thrown the best dice. Read more about the running game.
safe
Landing a second man on a blot, thus making a point.
shot
An opportunity to hit a blot or to achieve some other object by getting a certain throw.
staying back
A defensive strategy leading to playing a back game.
table
A word used synonymously with board. Not preferred today.